Districts and schools are faced with the challenge of having to implement, sustain, and evaluate many different innovations, initiatives, and programs simultaneously, with limited resources. As districts and schools seek ways to enhance the performance of all students while reducing instructional and performance gaps, there has been greater focus on ensuring that resources are channeled to where they are most needed. Educational efficiency aligns achievement with cost. Resources need to be efficiently allocated and well used to ensure the effectiveness of programs to the greatest possible extent; however, schools continuously face competing demands for available resources that often involve complex trade-offs. Ongoing program evaluation facilitates a feedback loop that supports efficient resource allocation.